Required Readings

Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. (2017). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach. (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Chapter 1, “Introduction to Criminal Behavior” (pp. 1–26)
Chapter 2, “Origins of Criminal Behavior: Developmental Risk Factors” (pp. 28–56)

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2013a). Retrieved from

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program. Retrieved November 27, 2019,  from

Lundman, R. J., & Kaufman, R. L. (2003). Driving while black: Effects of race, ethnicity, and gender on citizen self reports of traffic stops and police actions. Criminology41(1), 195–220.

Document: Final Project Guidelines (PDF)

Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. (2017). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Chapter 3, “Origins of Criminal Behavior: Biological Factors” (pp. 59-81)

Burkhead, M. D. (2006). The search for the causes of crime: A history of theory in criminology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. (click underlined link above for access)
From The Search for the Causes of Crime: A History of Theory in Criminology © 2006 Michael Dow Burkhead by permission of McFarland & Company, Inc., Box 611, Jefferson NC 28640.
Chapter 1, “Setting the Stage” (pp. 9–35)
Review the case scenario about Gary F. (pp. 23–27)



Discussion 2: Developmental Risk Factors and Correlates of Criminal Behavior

An important task in studying and understanding criminal behavior is identifying biological, psychological, and social (or sociological) developmental risk factors—such as weak family structure, poverty, and peer rejection—that may contribute to deviant behavior and crime. A task of criminologists, in fact, is to study developmental risk factors to gather information about the degree to which they influence criminal behavior outcomes. Risk factors have a strong and consistent relationship with criminal behavior. These risk factors are called correlates of criminal behavior. However, it does not mean that these correlates cause criminal behavior. There is no formula of correlates that consistently leads to criminal behavior. Identifying correlates, as well as developmental risk factors for particular individuals, however, might indicate the possibility of future criminal behavior and, therefore, may aid in preventing it.

For this Discussion, review the case scenario of Gary F. and the “Driving While Black: Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Citizen Self Reports of Traffic Stops and Police Actions” article from the resources. Consider the developmental risk factors and correlates of criminal behavior. Then, select two correlates of crime and criminal behavior to compare for this Discussion.

By Day 4

Post a description of the correlates you selected. Explain the differences between the correlates for criminal behavior in terms of the degree to which they contribute to and explain criminal behavior. Then, based on the case scenario about Gary F., provide a brief description of at least two developmental risk factors implied in the case scenario. Explain how each may have contributed to the criminal behavior described. Then, explain why each might contribute to criminal behavior in some individuals but not others. Finally, explain at least one conclusion you drew about the correlates for criminal behavior based on your comparison.

Note: Put the risk factors that you described in the first line of your post. You will be asked to respond to a colleague who selected at least one different risk factor.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the resources.