Introduction to Human Development
Using the textbook, answer the questions below.
1. Which theories propose that development is largely determined by how well people resolve the conflicts that they face at different ages?   
☐ learning
☐ psychodynamic
☐ cognitive
☐ systems
2. Which is the proper order of Piaget’s stages?   
☐ preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor
☐ concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor, preoperational
☐ formal operational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, preoperational
☐ sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
3. In general, _________ forces include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development.   
☐ biological
☐ psychological
☐ sociocultural
☐ life-cycle
4. Two-year-old Luke lines up behind peers after seeing them make a line. Luke is demonstrating learning by _________.   
☐ operant conditioning
☐ reinforcement
☐ preoperational thinking
☐ imitation or observation
5. Towanda notices that her 2-year-old child has made a huge leap in language ability. As far as language ability is concerned, Towanda would probably most agree with the ________ point of view.   
☐ environmental
☐ universal development
☐ genetic
☐ discontinuity
6. Describe what is meant by biological forces as a part of human development    
Type answer here
7. Why are theories used in developmental psychology?
Type answer here
8. In the table below, match the theories of human development with the appropriate description.
Text Box: A. Biological Model Text Box: D. Social-Cognitive Theory
Text Box: B. Psychosocial Theory Text Box: E. Social Learning Theory
Text Box: C. Theory of Cognitive Development Text Box: F. Genetics
Focuses on how heredity shapes human development.
An individual’s development is influenced by a broad set of biological and environmental factors that continually interact as development unfolds across time.
Children and adults observe their own behavior and the behavior of others as well as the consequences of those behaviors.
Emphasizes the significance of learning from others who are more advanced in their knowledge.
Social interactions with others shape the development of personality.
The development of thinking and problem solving becomes more sophisticated as individuals move throughout each stage.
Heredity and Environment
Using your textbook, answer the questions below.
9. Define the term: genes
Type answer here
10. Which condition involves an extra chromosome?
☐ Down syndrome
☐ sickle-cell disease
☐ Huntington’s disease
☐ phenylketonuria
11. Click HERE to watch the video and answer the questions below:
a. What is epigenetics?
Type answer here
b. Provide an example of an environmental factor that can affect how genes are expressed.
Type answer here
Prenatal Development and Childbirth
Using your textbook, answer the questions below.
12. How can a mother’s poor nutrition and unhealthy diet affect the development of the human embryo and fetus? Be specific. (Example: not consuming enough iron while pregnant can lead to premature delivery. Please do not use this example.)
Type answer here
13. During prenatal development, the ________ will become the digestive system.
☐ germ disc
☐ ectoderm
☐ mesoderm
☐ endoderm
14. Explain the critical periods in prenatal development in the table below.
Critical periods in   prenatal development
Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1-2)
Type answer here
Period of the Embryo (Week 3-8)
Type answer here
Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9-38)
Type answer here
15. How can a mother’s use of tobacco, alcohol, or drugs affect the development of the human embryo and fetus? Be specific.
Type answer here
16. When couples cannot conceive a child naturally, some turn to in vitro fertilization. In this process, ________.
☐ a doctor injects sperm cells directly into the fallopian tube
☐ a surrogate mother carries the baby to term
☐ sperm cells and egg cells are mixed in a petri dish
☐ a sex therapist teaches the couple relaxation strategies to reduce stress
17. During which period of prenatal development would exposure to teratogens most likely cause defects to major body structures?
☐ implantation
☐ zygote
☐ embryo
☐ fetus
18. Exposure to DES during pregnancy has been linked to ________.
☐ high rates of miscarriage
☐ memory problems
☐ effects decades after the drug was taken
☐ low birth weight in females and later fertility problems
Reflect on what you have learned this week to help you respond to the question below.  You may choose to respond in writing or by recording a video!
19. From this week’s resources, we know that both biology and the environment affect development. If you had to choose, based on what you’ve learned this week, would you say biology or the environment affect human development more? Why? Please explain.
Type answer here
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