Response 1:

Stigma in vulnerable populations and lack of food security



In the United States, one in eight adults and one in six children experience food security (Department of Agriculture, 2016). Food insecurity due to lack of access to food to promote health and wellness. Furthermore, lack of food can decrease growth and development in children. In adults, food disparities lead to chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, anxiety, and depression because they cannot afford nutritious food for their family. Vulnerable populations that have food insecurity experience stigma due lack of finances and cannot provide for their family  The American Academy of Pediatrics, Nutrition and Dietetics have provided screenings to identify risk factors of food insecurity (Flores & Amiri, 2019). Nursing managers and nurses can help advocate for families such as food depositories, nutrition programs and regular appointments to promote safety and wellness for patients (Flores & Amiri, 2019).



Flores, H. L., & Amiri, A. (2019). CE: Addressing food insecurity in vulnerable populations. AJN, American Journal of Nursing119(1), 38–45.




Response 2       



·         Authorized agent controlled analgesia in pain management


In postoperative setting, patient-controlled analgesia has been seen to minimize anxiety, pain control, patient comfort and patient satisfaction. A patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is where a patient can press a button and receive a small dose of intravenous (IV) opioid analgesia on demand regarding prescribed parameters. However, many patients with physical or cognitive limitations are not able to use patient-controlled analgesia. Authorized agent–controlled analgesia (AACA), is where a nurse or family member activates the PCA device and has been studied in the pediatric population but little attention in adult. The efficacy of authorized agent–controlled analgesia (AACA) in critically ill adult patients can help save nurses’ time. With the PCA, the nurse no longer has to go to a medication-dispensing machine, withdraw a single dose or witness the document amount that is waisted every time they administer an opioid medication. The medication is already available at the patient’s bedside, and the correct dose is dispensed each time the device is activated. According to Benjenk et al. (2020) nurses reported that AACA reduced the amount of time they spent retrieving medications as well as the pain level of their patients.



Benjenk, I., Messing, J., Lenjhan, M. J., Hernandez, M., Amdur., Sirajuddin, S., Davison, D., Schroeder, M. E., & Sarani, B. (2020). Authorized Agent- Controlled Analgesia for pain management in critically Ill adult patients. Critical Care Nurse, 40(3), 31-36.